Positive Signs: United Theories

A five-part Venn diagram of the interconnections between theories of subjective wellbeing.

The Positive Signs series of diagrams culminates with this large drawing. Numerous positive psychologists’ research and writings are mapped in relation to each other.

Caption: Christine Wong Yap, Positive Signs: United Theories, 2012, gel pen on vellum, 32 x 40 inches unframed / 35.5 x 43.5 x 1.5 inches framed / 81.2 x 101.6 cm unframed / 90 x 110.5 x 3.8 cm framed. Supported by Lucas Artists Program at the Montalvo Arts Center.


  • BF: Barbara Fredrickson (International Positive Psychology Association [IPPA] World Congress, 2010)
  • CP: Christopher Peterson, with MS, Character Strengths and Virtues (2004)
  • DK: Dacher Keltner, Born to Be Good (2009)
  • D/R: Edward Deci & Richard Ryan
  • ED: Ed Diener (IPPA World Congress, 2010)
  • JH: Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis (2006)
  • JN: Jeanne Nakamura, see JH
  • L/S/S: Sonja Lyubomirsky, Kennon M. Sheldon, David Schkade, see JH
  • MC: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Creativity (1996), Flow (1990)
  • MS: Martin Seligman, Learned Optimism (1991), Flourish (2011)
  • NB: Nathaniel Branden, see TBS
  • PM: Paul Martin, Sex, Drugs, and Chocolate (2008)
  • RV: Robert Vallerand (IPPA World Congress, 2010)
  • RW: Robert White, see JH
  • TBS: Tal Ben-Shahar, Happier (2007)
  • Z/B: Philip Zimbardo & John Boyd, The Time Paradox (2008)